It occurs both in SW and Original/RoG world. When I saw very volcano eruption end in overworld, I enter the volcano cave and still immediately overheated. Same in RoG world, when I saw restoring of ceiling light in cave(night -> dawn), I climb the rope and the overworld is still in night.
Edit : http://dont-starve-game.wikia.com/wiki/Volcano_Altar_of_Snackrifice I got similar bug that Daggaroth experienced, plus RoG over/underworld problem. He said that the bug is fixed in his game, but not mine.
I don't know well where this discrepancy of circadian rhythm begins. Edit : I got some suspection on Volcano Altar of the Snackrifice. It seems that sacrifice causes time trouble. Sacrificing doesn't actually delay the eruption.