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Route to a Super Robust Petroleum Boiler, Catastrophic Failure Not Included.

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== Motivation
Those things always break one way or another.
And if they don't break by themself then a dupe is coming along to help.

=== Failure Modes
- Overheating
Something somewhere gets just a little too hot.

- Overheating/Sour Gas
Bad Temperature control, especially during ramp-up or a cold start.
A dupe carries something to hot, to cold, wrong element somewhere it doesn't belong
- Broken pipes
Crude Oil converts to Petroleum inside a pipe.
Overheating from regular counter-flow because the steady state is just wrong.
Secondary damage from sour gas.

== Goal

Explore Solutions and Alternatives.
== Components
Engineering a robust design that minimizes potential for failure, is robust enough to tolerate common failure modes and is easy to recover from known and unknown failures.
Extra: Can be built with copper, and advanced research only. Uranium is a bonus.
=== Heat Injection
Limit potential for overheating.
In order to stop overheating there are some possible ways:
- know your system really well and have tight controls so it wont happen...like that ever worked out
- never go above 538 degrees for the heating surface...could take some time and then still fail
- use oni limits in heat transfer...this even survives reloads!
==== Heat Transfer Limits
During a single tick, no matter the amount of heat transferred potentially the new temp of the cell is
limited to 1/4 of the temperature differential.
e.g. Crude at 95C could get up 433C to about 538C before turning to sour gas.
That means for a single tick the hot side could be 1734C hot.
On the higher end Crude at 400C could take a 138 more and be in contact with a cell at 952C for just one tick.
==== Can you transfer enough heat in a single tick?
Solid - Liquid
q=Delta T *k_{geom} * 1000
100kg Copper Metal Tile at 538 - 10 kg of Crude at 95 +
Lets use 538 as copper temperature because we want to be extra safe and it doesn't really matter.
q = 443 * 11 * 1000 = 4873 kDTU which could heat 10kg Crude to 383C but is capped by 1/4 delta to about 203C.
Liquid - Liquid
q=Delta T *k_{geom} * 1000 * 625
85kg Liquid Uranium at 538 - 10 kg Crude at 95 +
q is 443 times 2 times 1000 times 625(!) = 553750 kDTU
Correction: Yes!
Measured crude temps are: Copper Tile 151.4 C and Liquid Uranium 203.8C
The maths is wrong somewhere but the conclusion holds.
=== Heat Injection - Proposed solution
Drop a single bead of crude past a liquid uranium cell for heat injection.
This gives high heat injection at low temperature differences and big working range at the high temperature side.
In theory magma could be used as heat injecting liquid!
=== Heat Injection - Capacity and Design
5kg/s seems practical from sandbox
10kg/s seems possible
I didn't tinker to much with optimizing heat replenishment into the heating liquid cells or figuring out max capacity.
=== Bead Forming
Liquid vents release a bead every five ticks the bead moves every tick.
Having alternating ticks would be ideal.
(2.5 beads per second)
I found an easy optimization: use two vents. (2 beads per second)
Being able to ramp up bead size for startup seems like a good idea therefore liquid valves.
During some early tests I had problems with beads bigger than 5kg:
Splitting or moving on conversion to petroleum and only partial conversion happening.
=== Heat Recovery - Counterflow Heat Exchanger
We already have dropping beads so a simple counter-flow heatexchanger is the obvious choice
=== Overheating Pipes -Instant Speed Fail-safe
If you run this design too hot you can still easily burst pipes.
You know whats also easy to burst? Beads!
==== Failure-mode
I layered two liquid beads(crude and petrol) above one segment of radiant pipe from the heat exchanger.
These beads shield the liquid in the pipes.
The moment the crude oil bead turns into petrol the two beads collapse and leave an gap in the wall.
This causes the beads to burst and teleport.
This reduces the heat transfer to the pipes really fast.

==== Replenishment - POC
It is possible to reset this safety automatically
=== In case of sour gas
Since this entire boiler uses basically doubles as a bead pump for gas just add
gas pumps to the headspace above the bead-former:


Edited by tilebytile
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