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My first non-beefalo forums guide! I've been doing a lot of research about winter temperature, thermal stone, insulation, etc via testing and looking through code and I now have too much knowledge and power that I must release through forums. Now updated with insulation and heat source comparison tables! How to properly warm up thermal stones Since most of y'all won't give up your rock no matter what possibly better options I present, might as well learn to use them properly. The only realistic ways to warm up a thermal stone to it's max of 90 degrees is burning trees and lava ponds. A 4 furnace set up can also warm them up to a good 80 degrees. Most people keep the stone on them and warm themselves up until they overheat. Don't do it this way. YOUR temperature doesn't impact the thermal stone, and by the time you're overheating the thermal stone still can use more time. For every extra second you can heat your stone you'll get 5 seconds of warmth. Set it on the ground right next to the burning tree when you're warming it up. 1 tree won't burn long enough either, you'll want to burn a second one afterwards. A 90 degree thermal stone should last about 8.5 minutes. Wearing insulation clothing won't help an orange or yellow thermal stone. But when the thermal stone runs out, you will have about 20 degrees left which you can get some value out of with insulation. If you're wearing a tam it'll give you another ~80 seconds at the end and therefore more of a warning before you start freezing. You could even pop on a beefalo hat right before your thermal runs out to give you an extra ~160 seconds. How to properly warm up without thermal stones Insulation clothing is amazing. It's really simple and straightforward, and can stack to last a really long time. A beefalo hat gives you 9 seconds of warmth for each second you warm yourself up, keeping you warm for up to 10.5 minutes! A beefalo hat + puffy/hibearnation vest gives you 17 seconds for each second you warm up, lasting almost 2.5 days if you overheat! Not to mention characters with beards getting even more. I especially like using insulated clothing on a beefalo because you often don't have as much competition for the equip slots. IMO, clothing easily wins over pet rocks if you're not switching or bundling them. Insulation Comparison/Cheatsheet/Whatever Bundling and Switching Thermals and Sunfish Bundling thermals is amazing. They won't cool down while bundled. Bundle them at max temperature or close to it and when 1 runs out swap it with a fresh hot stone in the bundle or your 4 furnace heating station if you're nearby. However, scorching sunfish are even better! You'll have to go sea fishing in summer and catch one. Each one lives for 2.66 days in winter in an insulated pack, and they keep you warm as long as they're alive with no complications. Swap the fish with a fresh one in your bundle or in your tin fishin bin if you're nearby. You theoretically can also use thermal stones or sunfish to warm up, then bundle them and use double clothing to stay warm for a while, and repeat to theoretically last the whole winter without needing to go to base to switch or stop to warm up. But you need multiple thermals or ideally sunfish (warmer) in your inventory to warm up to a decent temperature, and at that point you might as well just do the above. Hot Food This is obviously not generally recommended but it is technically viable. Living off of spicy chili (2 per day) with double clothing gives you exactly enough warmth and hunger to survive! Also 2 warly chili spiced foods a day work the same and is exactly enough to give you a perma 20% damage boost. And of course there's hot dragon chili salad that can actually keep you warm. Everything else loses it's heat over time if you're wearing an insulated pack and you can't wear a hibearnation vest if you're wearing an insulated pack. EDIT: apparently spicy chili is also susceptible to losing it's heat over time. So only Warly's chili spiced dishes or hot dragon chili salad is reasonably doable because of this. Heat source comparison table MECHANICS IF YOU'RE INTERESTED World Temperature In winter, the world temperature is around -20 degrees, but it can dip to -30 and even beyond during night. Generally, the player temperature (and thermal stone temp) is trying to match the world temperature. Player Temperature While above 70 degrees, you take 1.25 overheating damage each second, and the warning for this of orange color around your screen happens once you reach 65 degrees. At 5 degrees, frozen marks appear as a warning, and below 0 degrees you take 1.25 freezing damage each second. Thermal Stone Temperature The thermal stone also has it's own internal temperature, actually separate from the temperature of the heat it emits. It has a range of -20 to 90 degrees. It turns yellow when it cools to 30 degrees above the world temperature (~10 degrees). And turns white when it cools to 10 degrees above world temp (around -10 degrees). This means the thermal stone actually stays yellow a bit longer while world temp is lower, and during the very middle of the winter night when world temp is just under -30 degrees, it can't even run out because it can't go below -20 degrees. While orange it keeps you at around 35 degrees and while yellow it keeps you around 20 degrees (a fixed temperature throughout each stage, not directly dependent on it's own temp). It works exactly the same as a player with 120 insulation in terms of warming up and cooling down. Warming up While within 2.5 tiles of a heat source (fires, hot thermal stones, burning trees, etc), the heat source can warm players and thermal stones. While above 0 degrees, the player is always warmed 1 degree per second (5 degrees per second when freezing/below 0 degrees). The maximum temperature that the heat source can warm the player to is determined by world temperature, distance to the heat source, and how hot said heat source is. The way this is calculated seems weird and inconsistent so I'm leaving this for @Hornete to figure out. EDIT: A few notes about thermal stones: they act as 2.1x weaker heat sources when on the ground instead of in your inventory, and thermal stones can't warm other thermal stones for obvious reasons. Oh and they don't warm up faster on the ground, idk where that myth came from. In this VERY technical and thorough post I explain how to calculate the temperature that heat source(s) can warm a player or thermal stones to. But here are some actually potentially useful notes: With additional heat sources, you're not only warmed to a higher temperature, but it's a more consistent temperature because ambient temp shifts have less of an effect. So lets say ambient temperature decreases by 15 degrees. 1 furnace would be able to heat you up 7.5 degrees less. 2 furnaces would lose 5 degrees. And with 4 furnaces, players and thermal stones would only lose 3 degrees of what they could otherwise get to with a higher ambient temp. The heat thermal stones emit in your inventory is also less based on ambient temp, and therefore more consistent. How close you are to the heat source has a pretty negligible effect as long as you stay within a couple units of it; there's very little difference between being directly on the heat source (which you can't do with many) and being 1 or 2 units next to it. Cooling down While not near a heat source during winter, players and thermal stones cool down at a rate determined by insulation. This loss is very straightforward and easy to calculate. Just add 30 to your total insulation and divide by 30 (willow and wes also have -30 insulation with clothing). This value is how many seconds it takes to lose 1 degree. So a thermal stone or player wearing winter hat loses 1 degree every 5 seconds (120+30)/30. A fully bearded Wilson with a beefalo hat and hibearnation/puffy vest loses 1 degree every 21.5 seconds (135+240+240+30)/30 lasting over 3 days.