Are you launching the game for the first time? If so, do you have the DLC enabled? If you both are true, disable the DLC then launch the game. After which, re-enable the DLC and run the game. It should then launch fine.
I have found a solution to this issue. If you own any of the DLC for the game, uninstall the DLC. Launch only the base game of Oxygen Not Included. After the game runs, you can activate the DLC and the game should launch fine. Snips included of what to look for on Steam.