I just resolved my own issue. There were a bunch of mod files that weren't being properly cleaned up when I uninstalled, and any attempts at re-installation rebuilt the same file structure, putting the bad crashy things right back where they would be able to cause trouble again.
My client is crashing immediately after leaving the Klei logo screen as long as I have the game window focused. If the game window is not in focus, I can make it up to the update flavor screen, however, as soon as I try to interact I crash. Pulled the logs from local low and attached them. BuildID: 3257874. output_log.txt