With some help from this thread, I've empirically derived most of the formulas governing heat transfers. These formulas are for one tick on slowest speed (rapidly unpause/pause). You can plug in the various values and determine what the temperatures will be after one tick. Hopefully this will dispel much of the misinformation regarding these things. If you discover something that does not follow these equations please let me know.
q is the heat transferred, divide by mass and SHC of the mat